The Association Between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Depression in Older Adults

Authors

1 1Student Research Committee, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran

2 4Department of Psychiatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran

3 5Department of Biostatistics, School of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran

4 6Management Department, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran

5 7Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, IR Iran

Abstract

Background Depression is the most frequent psychiatric disorder among the elderly. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic and prevalent disease that has an ambiguous role in triggering depression. Several researches with contradictory findings have been performed about the association between OSA and depression. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the association between OSA and depression among elderly. Patients and Methods A total of 350 home residing elderly took part in this case-control study. The participants were selected using clustering method. All cases were divided into two groups of depressed and non-depressed using the geriatric depression scale (GDS). Then they were matched in age, gender, education and body mass index (BMI). Berlin questionnaire (BQ) was used to diagnose OSA. Data analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U test, t-test, Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests and odds ratio. Results Totally, 60.6 % of depressed group and 18.9 % of non-depressed group were in high risk for OSA. A significant association was found between OSA and depression (P < 0.001, OR = 6.61, CI 95 % = 4.1 - 10.7). In addition, a significant association was found between gender and OSA (P = 0.008). Conclusions OSA was associated with depression among the elderly patients. Given the high prevalence of OSA in older adults, implementation of screening methods is necessary to identify people at high risk of OSA.

Keywords