The Effects of Positive Normative Feedback on Learning a Throwing Task among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Document Type : Brief Report



Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a severe developmental disorder which leads to physical disability. Positive normative feedback can promote motor learning. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of positive normative feedback on learning a throwing task among children with ASD. Methods: This quasi‑experimental study was carried out on twenty children with ASD who aged 6–10 years. Children were assigned to a positive normative feedback and a control group. In the positive normative feedback group, children were trained to throw beanbags to a target point on the ground with their nondominant arms. The acquisition phase included six ten‑trial sets. Children in both groups received veridical feedback after each trial. However, children in the positive normative feedback group also received bogus feedback (scores, which were 20% greater than their actual scores) about their performance in each set. A retention test was performed 24 h after the acquisition phase. The independent sample t‑test and the repeated measures analysis of variance were used to analyze the data. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups regarding the performance mean score at baseline. Moreover, despite increases in the performance mean scores over time in both groups, between‑group differences in the acquisition and the retention phases were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Positive normative feedback does not have significant motivational effects on motor learning among children with ASD.