The effect of royal jelly on the level of consciousness in patients with traumatic brain injury: A double-blind randomized clinical trial


1 Department of Critical Care Nursing, Zanian University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran

2 Department of Critical Care Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran

3 Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran


Background: Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) experience changes in their level of consciousness (LOC). Royal Jelly is used in the treatment of neurological diseases. Objective: This study aimed to examine the effect of royal jelly on the LOC of patients with TBI. Methods: This double-blind randomized trial was performed in 2020 on 61 patients with TBI admitted to the intensive care unit. The patients were recruited consecutively and randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 33) and a control (n = 28) group. Patients in the intervention group received 3000 mg of royal jelly orally each day for 14 days, while those in the control group received routine care. The LOC was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Full Outline of Unresponsiveness (FOUR) score from day 1 to day 14. Data were analyzed using the repeated measures analysis and analysis of covariance. Results: The mean baseline GCS scores of the intervention and the control group were 4.39 ± 0.61and 4.82 ± 0.77, respectively, and changed to 11.93 ± 2.41 and 7.60 ± 2.51 at the end of the 14th day (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the mean baseline FOUR scores of the intervention and the control groups were 6.06±0.93 and 6.42 ± 1.16, respectively, and changed to 13.88 ± 2.57 and 9.71 ± 2.40 at the end of the study (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Using royal jelly for 2 weeks could improve the LOC of patients with TBI. However, further studies are recommended to determine the dose and duration of the usage.


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