Challenges of Living with an Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator A Qualitative Content Analysis

Document Type : Original Article


Patient Safety Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Clinical Research Institute, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran



Living with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) in the body can be challenging for patients. Identifying these challenges is, therefore, crucial for health promotion.
This study was conducted to explore the challenges experienced by patients living with an ICD.
A qualitative content analysis study was conducted on 24 patients with an ICD. Purposive sampling and individual semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect the study data. After transcribing the interviews, content analysis was performed to analyze the data.
The participants were aged 35–60 years. Their education level varied between primary and tertiary levels. The participants had an ICD for an average of 35.70 ± 11.36 months. Three themes emerged, including “feeling disabled,” “problematic adaptation,” and “Financial constraints.” These themes indicated the most important challenges experienced by the participants.
Patients with an ICD suffer more from psychological and financial problems than physical problems. Nurses and other health-care workers play a key role in supporting these patients.