Development and Psychometric Assessment of Barriers to Postoperative Pain Management in Dementia Scale A Mixed Methods Exploratory Study

Document Type : Original Article


1 Student Research Committee, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran

2 Nursing Care Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran



Identifying the barriers to acute pain management in older adults with dementia needs appropriate instruments adapted to the cultural structure of each community. Such an instrument can help to provide effective interventions.
This study aimed to develop and psychometrically validate Barriers to Postoperative Pain Management in Dementia Scale (BPPMDS) from the nurses' point of view.
This methodological study was conducted in 2019–2020. In the first phase, semi-structured interviews with 15 nurses and literature review were conducted for item generation. In the second phase, face, content, and construct validity and reliability of the instrument were assessed.
In the first phase, 67 items were produced. In the second phase, the number of items reduced to 39 after the assessment of face, content, and construct validity. Exploratory factor analysis showed that the BPPMDS has three factors (i.e., older adult-related factors, health care provider-related factors, and system-related factors), which explain 57.57% of the total variance. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the scale was 0.956.
The BPPMDS can be used as a valid and reliable scale to measure postoperative acute pain management in older patients with dementia and hip fracture.