1Department of Nursing, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
2Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Nursing Faculty, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
3Department of Nursing, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
4Payame Noor University (PNU)
5Department of Nursing, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
Context Considering the high prevalence of psychological distresses among patients with chronic physical diseases, the question is why do some of these patients not experience any disorders and cope better with their disease? Objectives The current study aims at reviewing the researches on resilience in adult patients with chronic diseases. Data Source In the present systematic review, articles published in English on resilience from March 2000 to July 2015 were searched using the keywords: Resilience OR Resiliency AND Illness OR Disease OR Chronic Disease in databases such as Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, PreQuest, Scopus, and PsycINFO. Study Selection The process of screening and the initial selection of articles were based on systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The methodological quality of the articles was studied using a modified version of quality of life index form. Eventually, 17 qualified studies were selected for the review. Data Extraction The form used to extract information included the variables of the first author of the article, the publication year, the place of the study, the type of the study, sample size, the data collecting instruments, and the most important findings. Results The results included resilience outcomes, protective factors and resilience-related risk factors. Psychological distresses were the most common risk factors, and self-efficacy and adaptive coping constituted the most common resilience-related protective factors. The findings showed that the protective factors, by mediating risk factors, resulted in positive outcomes such as proper treatment adhesion, better quality of life, psychological well-being, and self-care behaviors. Conclusions Resilience is a balance between risk factors and protective factors, and it develops or disappears through changes in the protective and risk factors. Patients with high resilience tend to enhance their protective factors and manage their everyday life in spite of disease-related limitations.