Psychological Violence in the Health Care Settings in Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study


1 1Department of Nursing, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran

2 2Center for Nursing Care Research, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran

3 3Department of Nursing, Razi Psychiatric Hospital, Tehran, IR Iran

4 4Deputy of Nursing, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, IR Iran



Background Psychological violence is the most common form of workplace violence that can affect professional performance and job satisfaction of health care workers. Although several studies have been conducted in Iran, but there is no consensus regarding current status of such violence. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of psychological violence among healthcare workers employed at teaching hospitals in Iran. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 5874 health professionals were selected using multistage random sampling. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire developed by the International Labor Organization, International Council of Nurses, World Health Organization, and Public Services International. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results It was found that 74.7% of the participants were subjected to psychological violence during the past 12 months. Totally, 64.5% of psychological violence was committed by patients’ families, but 50.9% of participants had not reported the violence, and 69.9% of them believed that reporting was useless. Conclusions The results are indicative of high prevalence of psychological violence against healthcare workers. Considering non-reporting of violence in more than half of participants, use of an appropriate reporting system and providing training programs for health professionals in order to prevent and manage workplace violence are essential.